Raising the profile: an institutional case study of embedding
scholarship and innovation through distributive leadership
GCU LEAD (Centre for Learning Enhancement and Academic Development), Glasgow
Caledonian University, Glasgow, UK
Distributive leadership, which has been described as a distribution of power
within the sociocultural context of universities, provides a valuable model for
encouraging scholarship and innovation in learning and teaching. By nurturing,
rather than imposing, leadership responsibilities, and relating them to personal,
as well as institutional priorities, there is potential to foster creativity and support career progression. This paper explores the impact of this approach through
a university-wide initiative which has firmly established itself as a key aspect of
continuing professional development. The case study describes how the initiative has benefitted from the experiences and findings of national and international developments and adapted them to the local context by supporting,
encouraging and acknowledging evidence-based practice across the curriculum,
including the integration of learning technology. It provides an overview of
evaluation findings which indicate that scholarship and innovation in learning
and teaching are being enhanced through increased staff engagement and institutional acknowledgement.
Keywords: evidence-based practice; scholarship; distributive leadership;
Raising the profile and status of innovative pedagogic practice in higher education
can be problematic, due in no small part to continuing pressure on academics to
focus on career enhancement through disciplinary research. Whilst lip service may
be paid to the central role of learning and teaching, the culture within institutions
often systemically embeds the imbalance, as research, rather than excellent pedagogic practice, continues to attract higher status and remains a central tenet of academic promotion (Vardi & Quin, 2011). Against this background, an emphasis on
scholarly approaches to learning and teaching is essential if the profile of pedagogic
practice is to be enhanced and opportunities for career progression through the
learning and teaching route increased.
Evidence-based practice can be interpreted in many ways and from a range of
perspectives. Originating in the field of medicine, the concept has been widely
adopted in education to ensure that pedagogic practice is effectively informed by
the findings of high quality educational research, although as Biesta (2007) points
out, this is a nuanced concept which merits critique. It has often been linked to
*Email: [email protected]
Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 2014
Vol. 51, No. 6, 573â€“583, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14703297.2013.796716
2013 Taylor & Francis
scholarship in learning and teaching (Boyer, 1990) which Prosser describes as
â€˜evidence based critical reflection on practice to improve practiceâ€™ (2008, p. 2).
Whereas aspects of educational research can foreground theory, innovative scholarly
activity, underpinned by action research, is firmly rooted in day to day learning and
teaching activities (Mills, 2000; Reason & Bradbury, 2001). Although the value of
these scholarly, evidence-based approaches to the learner experience is largely
undisputed (Jenkins, 2009), institutional culture, disciplinary priorities and a lack of
acknowledgement of innovation can have a negative impact on staff engagement in
continuing professional development (CPD) and scholarly activity in learning and
In this digital age, the effective use of technology is also central to academic
practice. Nevertheless, for those who pursue innovation through the application of
technology, the task of gathering evidence to support career advancement can be
particularly daunting as technology enhanced learning frequently stands accused of
technological determinism with insufficient evidence or theoretical underpinning to
support its claims of effectiveness (Bennett & Oliver, 2011; Creanor & Walker,
2012). Tensions continue to exist between technological and pedagogic drivers, rendering problematic maintenance of a scholarly focus against a backdrop of constant
change and relentless technological advances (Watson, 2001). Hence, the strategic
implementation of evidence-based, technology-enhanced learning linked to career
progression within the disciplines is perceived as a challenging goal which requires
explicit encouragement and support through institutional recognition and influential
leadership (Conole, White, & Oliver, 2007).
This case study outlines the experience of one UK university over a four-year
period as it sought to embed evidence-based academic practice across the curriculum. The paper aims to explore the impact of the distributive leadership model in
effecting transformational change in attitudes towards, and engagement in, scholarly
activity in learning and teaching across the institution. It begins by outlining the
background and rationale for a strategic CPD initiative designed to address these
issues, informed by relevant national and international developments. It goes on to
describe the implementation, outcomes and findings to date before reflecting on the
overall impact of such an approach and outlining plans for future development to
Influencing models and frameworks
Innovation as a concept is problematic within higher education with varied foci
encompassing local, often individualised, developments in learning and teaching
alongside more managerial and business-oriented institutional and political strategies
(Findlow, 2008; Hockings, 2005; Smith, 2011). Attempts to drive forward innovation in learning and teaching mirror this variation in conceptual understanding, with
strategies and policies veering between top-down and bottom-up implementations
which result in a similarly diverse range of outcomes.
Examples of large scale initiatives within the UK include those supported separately
by the Funding Councils in England and Scotland. From 2005â€“2010 considerable
amounts of government funding were disbursed by the Higher Education Funding
574 L. Creanor
Council for England to establish 74 centres of excellence in teaching and learning
(CETLs), each with a particular pedagogic focus. These centres, many of which
incorporated technology enhanced approaches, were locally hosted by the successful
bidders but had a sector-wide remit. The dual aims for this initiative were, â€˜â€¦ to
reward excellent teaching practice and to further invest in that practice so that CETLs funding delivered substantial benefits to students, teachers and institutionsâ€™.
While success in embedding innovation and evidence based-practice is clearly
evidenced by sections of this strategic initiative (Anderson, Bullen, Alltree, & Thornton,
2008; VLL, 2010), an interim evaluation of the impact of the CETLs noted that,
The tradition of deliberate strategies to change and enhance learning and teaching in
higher education in the UK has a relatively short history. Traditionally, its legitimacy
among numbers of academics has been uncertain. Central or cross-disciplinary standards,
approaches, suggestions and development have run up against the canon of concerns
traditionally held by academics. So, academics do not appreciate a heavy central steer on
practices that have been very much the local preserve. (Saunders et al., 2008, p. 9)
In a parallel development in Scotland, the Scottish Funding Council (SFC) invested
Â£6 million in an E-Learning Transformation Programme from 2005â€“2007. Six
large-scale projects involving both higher and further education institutions
addressed topics such as e-assessment and feedback, blended learning and online
resources with the aim of effecting transformational change in the integration of
technology across the curriculum.2
Echoing the CETL interim review, the final evaluation of the SFC E-Learning
Transformation Programme identified that,
The emerging breadth of focus for the projects demonstrates that it is not realistic to
attempt to transform the curriculum without taking people with you on that transformation journey (including learners, teaching staff and institutional managers). Nor is it
feasible to attempt to transform academic practice without a context and a focus for
curriculum change. (Glenaffric, 2008, p. 11)
These findings suggest that despite top-level encouragement and substantial
resource, local ownership, empowerment and individual agency remain key influencers of engagement and impact in encouraging creative, evidence-based learning
and teaching practice. Without a real sense of long-term commitment to the projects, continuation and embedding beyond the initial funding period is difficult to
achieve (Bates & Sangra, 2003; Gunn, 2010a).
The individual perspective
In contrast to these large scale initiatives, empowering and developing the potential
of individual academics was the focus of the Australian Faculty Scholars Network.
Supported by the Australian learning and teaching council, it has extended its
impact from the initial pilot institutions to a wider group of participating universities. The original aim of the initiative was to assess the validity of a leadership
development capacity framework for teaching and learning (Parrish & Lefoe, 2008).
This approach is underpinned by the concept of Distributive Leadership (Bennett,
Wise, Woods, & Harvey, 2003; Knight & Trowler, 2001) which is described by
Lefoe, Smigiel, and Parrish (2007) as:
Innovations in Education and Teaching International 575
â€¦ a distribution of power within the sociocultural context of universities, and a sharing of knowledge, of practice and reflection through collegiality. (2007, p. 5)
Originally conceived as a way of preparing future leaders in learning and teaching
for a rapidly evolving higher education system, this model promotes the development of leadership skills amongst the staff who do not necessarily have a formally
recognised leadership role in a hierarchical sense. The model has been used successfully to take forward key learning and teaching priorities including assessment,
feedback and online distance learning (Keppell, Oâ€™Dwyer, Lyon, & Childs, 2010;
Lefoe, 2010), with participants rewarded with small amounts of funding, partial
relief from teaching duties and support through the network of Faculty Scholars.
One outcome of this initiative has been a Distributive Leadership Development
Framework which can be adapted to suit the local context. Results showed that
participants gained confidence in their own ability to act as leaders and to influence
colleagues and senior managers in taking forward key learning and teaching
With distributive leadership, those people who may not sit in hierarchical positions of
leadership have an opportunity to lead both upwards and sideways among their colleagues and through this mechanism have a real opportunity to influence others and
more importantly influence those with power that comes with hierarchical positions of
leadership. (Parrish & Lefoe, 2008, p. 2)
The focus on the individual is also integral to the recently revised Professional
Standards Framework for Teaching and Supporting Learning in Higher Education in
the UK (UKPSF, 2011). Developed by the higher education academy (HEA) in collaboration with the sector, the framework identifies a series of levels and criteria
against which an academicâ€™s professional development in the scholarship and leadership of learning and teaching can be gauged. The framework can be contextualised at a local level, indeed institutions are actively encouraged to do so, and it
links to accreditation as an Associate, Fellow, Senior Fellow or Principal Fellow of
the HEA. Although not, as yet, a universally compulsory requirement, an increasing
number of UK institutions require new academic staff to attain fellowship of the
HEA at an early stage, either by undertaking an accredited programme of study or
through a direct application based on prior experience. The framework is used by
institutions to inform their postgraduate certificate programmes in learning and
teaching and to shape CPD activities.
Influenced by, and building on, these examples, the following case study outlines how such models and frameworks have influenced the approach of one UK
institution which sought to attain strategic impact in learning and teaching through
the empowerment of individuals, acknowledgement of scholarly activity and the
encouragement of evidence-based practice across all disciplinary areas.
Caledonian scholars and associates
Glasgow Caledonian University (GCU) is a post-1992, campus-based Scottish institution with almost 17,000 students studying in its three academic schools in the
areas of business and society, health and life sciences and engineering and the built
environment. With a significant widening participation agenda, it places a strong
576 L. Creanor
emphasis on learning, teaching and the student experience. Nevertheless, promoting
recognition for excellence in learning and teaching and encouraging engagement in
CPD in a meaningful way have been challenging goals. While undertaking the
Universityâ€™s postgraduate certificate in learning and teaching for higher education
(PgC LTHE) is expected of all new staff, participation in ongoing CPD for learning
and teaching beyond this stage is generally optional and unrecognised. The
University sought to address these inter-linked challenges in an informed way,
building on experiences in the sector both nationally and internationally.
The national, large-scale initiatives had taught that local ownership and control
were essential for sustainable transformation within a strategic framework, therefore
the focus was primarily on empowering individuals based on a Distributive Leadership model which recognises and encourages localised ownership of innovation and
change. Inspired by the successful Faculty Scholars Network in Australia and
informed by the UKPSF, the Caledonian Scholars and Associates initiative was
launched in summer 2008. It supports the implementation of GCUs CPD Framework for Learning and Teaching, which in turn reflects the key priorities of the Universityâ€™s LTAS as well as the core knowledge, professional values and areas of
activity of UKPSF.
The aims of the Caledonian Scholars and Associates initiative are to,
â€¢ Provide opportunities for new and experienced staff to maintain continuing
engagement with scholarly approaches to learning and teaching throughout
â€¢ Enhance learning and teaching practice and the quality of the student experience.
â€¢ Recognise individual endeavour and address a number of promotion criteria
through the learning and teaching route.
â€¢ Actively promote innovation in learning and teaching to benefit students,
departments and academic schools.
â€¢ Enable lecturers and staff who support student learning to gain university recognition for commitment to, and investment in, scholarship in learning and
â€¢ Acknowledging the increasingly ubiquitous presence of technology and its
central role in learning and teaching, learning technology is integral to, rather
than separate from, GCUâ€™s LTAS, CPD framework and the Caledonian Scholars and Associates initiative.
The initiative is facilitated by the central department with responsibility for
academic development, learning technology and educational research. An annual
call is issued for applications which are aligned to the university LTAS and
school/departmental priorities. Submissions must be approved by line managers
before being peer reviewed by international experts, with final decisions on acceptance made by the Pro Vice Chancellor (learning and teaching). The criteria for
the role of Caledonian Scholars and Associates are in alignment with distributive
leadership principles and are explicitly identified in GCU promotion documentation
as contributing evidence towards career progression through the learning and
Innovations in Education and Teaching International 577
A relatively small amount of university funding has been made available for
projects undertaken by Caledonian Scholars (Â£2k over two years) and as an
additional incentive, workload remission of up to 5 h per week can be negotiated
with school senior management. The number of scholar projects accepted at each
call is normally limited to a maximum of seven or eight due to the level of funding
and support available. Successful Scholars are experienced staff who can evidence
an ability to provide leadership and influence peers in the area of learning and
teaching, and have a proven record of achievement in educational design,
educational technology or relevant strategy development.
Extending the original Australian Faculty Scholars model, a new role of
Caledonian Associate was also created in order to encourage less experienced staff,
including those with a student support role who perhaps lacked the confidence to
undertake an in-depth, two year action research project, but who nevertheless had
an interest in becoming more involved in scholarly activity. Caledonian Associates
do not receive funding, but they are entitled to negotiate workload remission of up
to 3 h per week and access ongoing support from the central team as well as the
wider community of Scholars and Associates.
Individuals or small teams of two or three colleagues working collaboratively
can apply for these roles. The projects undertaken normally use an action research
methodology and are linked to the distributive leadership principles of generating
engagement, shared responsibility and capacity building. To date (June 2012) there
have been 43 projects involving 47 scholars and 14 associates spread across all
discipline areas, focusing on topics such as assessment, employability, induction
and internationalisation. Reflecting the central role of technology in pedagogic
innovation, technology enhanced learning has featured in 70% of the projects
including re-usable learning objects in health, online induction in biology, virtual
worlds in cyberpsychology, blogs and wikis in media journalism and online communication in law. Indeed, it seems that by not insisting on a technology focus,
the growth of interest in innovation through technology appears to have been nurtured through the exchange of knowledge and experience both at regular meetings
and in an online community where information can be shared and blog updates
Evaluating the impact
Two reviews of the initiative have been carried out with the aim of evaluating the
relevance of the distributive leadership model and its impact on those involved. The
first was conducted in 2009 at the end of the first year of operation by an external
reviewer who had also evaluated the Australian Faculty Scholars network. In-depth
interviews focusing on the distributive leadership role were conducted with participants and elicited highly positive feedback, with obvious support for the opportunities presented by the initiative, e.g.
[We have] a huge amount of praise for the project. Weâ€™ve really appreciated all the
support â€¦ weâ€™ve been encouraged to look for dissemination opportunities and to use
the networks to build capacity.
[the Scholar role] does get you noticed.
578 L. Creanor
The report concluded that,
The Scholars and Associates Program has proved beneficial to participants in a variety
of ways in the initial phase. The Scholars were keen to talk about and reflect on their
experience, and many useful suggestions were offered for future Program activities.
Further value could be realized by harnessing the creative ideas of those involved.
Encouraging their leadership as co-creators of future iterations of the Program would
be a true reflection of the distributive leadership concept in action. (Gunn, 2010b,
The second evaluation was conducted internally the following year with data gathered from focus groups and discussions with a range of stakeholders. Again, the
findings confirmed that the distributive leadership model was seen as pertinent and
valuable. The involvement of external experts in the application reviewing process
was perceived to confer credibility and status to the initiative. The â€˜two-tierâ€™ system
of scholar and associate roles was considered useful as it gave less experienced staff
the opportunity to engage with evidence-based practice and action research at an
early stage in their careers.
Challenges were also acknowledged, including differences in the way Schools
engaged with the initiative, often influenced by the extent to which informal CPD
was encouraged and supported locally. Variation was also evident in the way
schools and departments addressed the recommendation for workload remission for
scholars and associates, which could be problematic depending on the local context
and priorities. It is recognised that these are aspects which merit attention in the
future development of the initiative.
Caledonian Scholars and Associates are required to submit interim and final reports
incorporating literature reviews, methodology and outcomes. Findings to date indicate that projects have generally been effective in enhancing the student experience,
and valuable recommendations to inform continuing research, scholarly activity and
improved practice within schools and departments have been proposed and implemented, confirming the effectiveness of distributive leadership. The scholarly profiles of the individuals concerned have been enhanced through 37 national and
international conference presentations and with 18 peer-reviewed journal publications achieved to date. Several scholars and associates have been successful in gaining additional small grant funding to extend their projects, both externally through
the HEA subject centres and internally through locally available funding streams.
A key aspect of the Caledonian Scholars and Associates initiative is its explicit
alignment with career progression for academics through the learning and teaching
route. In the most recent (2011 and 2012) promotion rounds six scholars and associates were promoted from lecturer to senior lecturer and one to professor, suggesting
that the initiative is beginning to have an impact in this regard. An increasing
number of scholars and associates are either graduates of the PgC LTHE or current
students, demonstrating a clear alignment with progression through the CPD framework. In addition, at least four scholars are currently aligning their projects with
doctoral studies. A Caledonian scholar was the winner of the recently launched
(2011) Principalsâ€™ Award for Teaching, and received particular commendation for
Innovations in Education and Teaching International 579
the creative use of a range of learning technologies, with others featuring strongly
in the student-led teaching awards.
Institutional acknowledgement is apparent in a variety of ways: the outcomes of
the initiative have been commended by senior university committees; it was highlighted as a case study in a recent Quality Assurance Agency institutional review
and Schools include the achievements of their scholars and associates in annual
reports, validation and subject review documentation. In addition, scholars and associates are actively influencing learning and teaching across the institution at both
practice and policy level through membership of strategic committees such as the
Blended Learning Implementation Group, and are demonstrating their leadership
skills through encouraging and mentoring less experienced colleagues. Overall,
there is growing evidence of the â€˜upwards and sidewaysâ€™ leadership identified by
Parrish and Lefoe (2007, p. 2) which is creating closer links between research,
scholarship and academic practice along with an enhanced university-wide recognition of their value.
Although further research is required, these early outcomes indicate that
advances are being made in shifting the institutional culture to greater acknowledgement and a more scholarly appraisal of pedagogic innovation. Literature
reviews, action research and increased awareness of current thinking in the field are
leading to thoughtful evidence-based approaches which benefit students and
As the Caledonian Scholar and Associate Initiative approaches the end of its fourth
year of operation, consideration is being given to its future evolution. Crucially,
there is a need to create continuing opportunities for building capacity in scholarly
activity and distributive leadership beyond the completion of Scholar and Associate
projects to ensure sustainability (Gunn, 2010a). While evaluations show that the distributive leadership model is relevant and effective, it is also evident that given the
limited time available for scholars and associates to implement their projects during
the academic year, leadership activities often only become truly effective on completion of the action research projects. To encourage continuing engagement, a clear
pathway for the ongoing development is required which builds leadership capacity
in learning and teaching while simultaneously strengthening links with personal
career development through the learning and teaching route. This is also central to
alignment with the more advanced stages of the revised UKPSF.
The University has now approved a Senior Scholar role which will be launched
later this year, specifically aimed at those who have successfully completed their
Scholar projects or who have otherwise demonstrated leadership in advanced
learning and teaching activity. As recommended by the initial evaluator, this has
been shaped by input from current Scholars thus embodying the distributive
leadership concept. Criteria have been mapped to the Universityâ€™s revised CPD
Framework, currently awaiting accreditation by the HEA, which ensures alignment
with HEA Senior and Principal Fellow status. The emphasis will be on strategic
developments which are creative, cross-disciplinary, action-focused, sustainable,
reflective of professional values and, of course, evidence-based. Senior Scholars
will have the opportunity to raise their profiles further by leading influential,
collaborative projects with university-wide impact.
580 L. Creanor
Effecting transformational, cultural and attitudinal change takes time and sustained
effort (Garrison, 2011). The potential of the Caledonian Scholars and Associates initiative to effect such change is only now becoming increasingly apparent. Over four
years, there has been a gradual shift from localised project outcomes to a wider
understanding and acceptance of the potential of the distributive leadership model
as a means of embedding and rewarding evidence-based practice across the institution. Scholarly activity and innovative practice, often embracing technology and
enhanced learning, have undoubtedly gained ground, underpinned by a growing evidence base and promoted by committed opinion leaders and change agents, many
of whom did not perceive themselves as such, at the outset of this CPD experience.
Although the initiative is facilitated centrally, ownership of the action research projects remains with the participants, their Departments and Schools, bearing out findings from previous transformational change projects that local â€˜buy-inâ€™ is an
essential factor in ensuring longer term sustainability (Mayes, Morrison, Mellar,
Bullen, & Oliver, 2009; Nicol, 2009). The effort expended by Caledonian scholars
and associates has been acknowledged by peers and university management, and in
several cases, rewarded through promotion, additional funding, student-led teaching
awards and an enhanced external profile.
The initiative has not been without challenges, primarily with regard to workload issues and internal structural changes. Nevertheless, the commitment of senior
management to support and expand the initiative is itself evidence of its success to
date, as is the fact that this remains a competitive process, providing a valuable
stepping stone in scholarly activity for less experienced staff and a means for the
experienced staff to raise their profile, enhance their own practice and that of others,
and improve their prospects for career advancement.
Only time will tell if the institutional and cultural change required for long term
sustainability has been achieved (Gunn, 2010a). Meanwhile, encouraging the active
involvement of staff at all levels within the institution as the living embodiment of
distributive leadership continues to raise the profile of, and foster an ongoing commitment to, scholarly and innovative pedagogic practice.
I would like to acknowledge the major contribution of my colleague Alison Nimmo, Senior
Lecturer in GCU LEAD, to the development of the Caledonian scholars and associates
initiative. An earlier version of this paper was presented at the ascilite conference, Hobart,
Tasmania, 4â€“7 December 2011.
Notes on contributor
Linda Creanor is a professor of Learning Technology in GCU LEAD (Centre for Learning
Enhancement and Academic Development) at Glasgow Caledonian University in the UK.
Her responsibilities include the strategic implementation of Blended Learning and the
Caledonian Scholars and Associates initiative which aims to enhance scholarship in learning
and teaching through a distributive leadership model of professional development. Her
Innovations in Education and Teaching International 581
research interests span networked learning, the learner experience of learning technology and
professional development. She is a member of the association for learning technology
(ALT), having previously served as trustee, vice-chair, chair and president. She is also a
fellow of the Higher Education Academy in the UK and a member of the Heads of ELearning Forum.
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Innovations in Education and Teaching International 583
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In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
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We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
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You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.Read more
Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.Read more
Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.Read more
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