Carbohydrates in Health and Disease

Study Guide Part 2 (Weeks 6-10)


Instructions: Using what you’ve learned from the lectures + reading in this class, fill in the blanks and answer ALL questions on the outline in a DIFFERENT COLOR. In order to earn any points, the outline must be complete, meaning every question is answered. Any blank questions will earn 0 points for the entire outline.

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Week 6

Carbohydrates in Health and Disease


1. Carbohydrate, primarily as ____________(type of sugar), provides energy to the body. Blood __________levels are maintained by the hormones ____________ & ____________.

2. When blood ___________ increases, _____________ is secreted, which allows ____________ to be taken into the cells.

3. When blood ___________ decreases, _____________ is secreted, which allows ____________ to be released from the _______________.

4. Insulin is produced by the __________________ of the ___________________.

5. Diabetes is characterized by _______________________. This occurs either because insufficient _____________ is produced or because of a ________________in the body’s sensitivity to it.

6. High blood glucose levels from uncontrolled diabetes damages tissues of the _______________, ______________, _______________, _______________, and ______________ and can lead to ___________________, ___________________, and ____________________.

7. People of __________________, __________________, and __________________ decent are at greater risk for Type 2 diabetes

8. Describe the difference between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes? (How does each type develop? How is insulin involved? Etc…)

9. Complete the following with blood values associated with normal, prediabetes, and diabetes:

  HbA1C (%) Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG) (mg/dL) Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) (mg/dL)


10. What are 6 risk factors for Type 2 diabetes?



11. What are the 5 risk factors for Gestational diabetes?

12. Diabetes can be managed by ______________, __________________, and _________________.

13. How does exercise help with diabetes management?

14. Dietary recommendations for people with diabetes include a well-balanced diet with a focus on healthy carbs and fats. Name a few examples of each:

a. Healthy Carbs:

b. Healthy Fats:

15. Maintaining a healthy body __________________ with diet and exercise is recommended for people with diabetes.

16. What does it mean to eat consistently?

17. What are the two best strategies for diabetes remission?

18. Hypoglycemia is low blood glucose. In healthy people, it can be treated by ____________________________, ________________________ and _____________________.

19. __________________ in your mouth produce ____________ when they digest carbohydrates, which can lead to dental caries (cavities).

20. Diets high in _________________ may reduce the risk of heart disease, high blood glucose, bowel disorders, and colon cancer.


Week 7


1. Lipids are a group of organic compounds, which do not dissolve in water. The 3 types of lipids are ____________________, ____________________, and ____________________.

2. Name 2 sources of the following fats: – Animal fats: ________________________, _________________________ – Plant fats: ________________________, ___________________________

3. ___________________, commonly referred to as fat, are the type of lipid that is most abundant in our food and in our bodies. They are made up of a molecule of __________________ with three _____________________ attached.


4. Fatty acid chains may differ from one another in the number of carbons in the chain and the type of bond between the carbons. This bonding gives particular characteristics to each type of triglyceride. Fill in the following table about the 5 types of fatty acids:

Type of fatty acid Structure at room temperature (liquid or solid) Double bond characteristics (how many, where are they?) Food sources (at least 2)
Omega 6      
Omega 3      


5. Fats become rancid when exposed to _________________. To protect fats from becoming rancid, food manufacturers use the process of ___________________, which takes _________________ fatty acids and makes them more __________________. This process creates ___________ fats.

6. Phospholipids contain a ____________ molecule with two ____________ and a _________ group. They can mix in both water and fat. __________________ is the most common.

7. Dietary cholesterol comes from ______________________________________________.

8. Bile is produced in the _________________ and stored in the ___________________.

9. Describe the action of bile:

10. Triglycerides are broken down into ______________________ and ______________________.

11. In the small intestine, products of fat digestion form ____________________, which allow lipids to be absorbed. Inside the mucosal cell, contents of fat digestion are incorporated into a __________________________, which enter into the _____________ vessel. (see Fig 5.9 on page 124 for help)

12. Lipoproteins are lipid transport molecules which contain a coating of _________________, _______________, and ________________. This allows lipids to transport around the body.

13. Describe the following lipoproteins by filling in the chart. (see Fig 5.11 on page 127 for help)

Type of lipoprotein Where do they come from (where are they made?) What are they carrying? Main function?


14. Which essential fatty acids are used to make eicosanoids that INCREASE inflammation, blood clotting, and blood pressure? _______________

15. Which essential fatty acids that are used to make eicosanoids that DECREASE inflammation, blood clotting, and blood pressure? ______________

16. Describe the process of atherosclerosis and how it may lead to a heart attack or stroke. (What are the roles of immune cells and LDL, how does plaque buildup?) (See Fig 5.16 on page 133 for help)

Week 8

Lipid Recommendations

1. What are 5 risk factors for heart disease?

2. What 2 TYPES of fatty acids increase risk for heart disease? Give one FOOD SOURCE for each.

3. What 2 TYPES of fatty acids decrease risk for heart disease? Give one FOOD SOURCE for each.

4. To decreased heart disease, we should _______________ LDL and __________________ HDL.

5. Fill in the following tables about blood cholesterol:

Total Cholesterol Level Category
Less than 200 mg/dL  
200-239 mg/dL  
240 mg/dL and above  



LDL Cholesterol Level Category
Less than 100 mg/dL  
100 – 129 mg/dL  
130- 159 mg/dL  
160- 189 mg/dL  
190 mg/dL and above  



  HDL Level
  At Risk Desirable

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