Contemporary Chinese Art An Introduction

A Dilemma in
Contemporary Chinese Art
An Introduction
hsingyuan tsao & roger t. ames
Is contemporary Chinese art “Chinese” art? Chapters in this collection attempt to address this question by investigating the relationship between ancient Chinese philosophy and the ideas being
expressed in contemporary Chinese art at a time when this art
becomes increasingly popular in the West. Contemporary Chinese
art is in a cultural dilemma. On the one hand, it is not exactly “Chinese” even though it does address the Chinese experience and its
issues. And on the other hand, it cannot abandon this “Chinese”
identity because it is only by labeling itself “Chinese” that it can gain
a place in the international art arena. Today the expression contemporary art discourse is almost synonymous with Western contemporary art discourse. Contemporary art has been vetted and evaluated
internationally under Western assumptions about modernity and
postmodernity. Within this rather narrowly defi ned cultural space,
the relative position of contemporary art from China has been an
important issue for artists and art historians. The identity of contemporary Chinese art is often challenged by the competing claims
that it is either derivative of Western contemporary art or that it has
been defi ned within the indigenous cultural identity of China and
is thus the manifestation of contemporary China.
This dialogue about contemporary Chinese art began as early
as 1981 when China was recovering from the Stars Group, an art
movement driven by social protest that anticipated the New Wave
<i>Xu Bing and Contemporary Chinese Art : Cultural and Philosophical Reflections</i>, edited by Hsingyuan Tsao, and Roger T. Ames, State
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xiv hsingyuan tsao & roger t. ames
of 1985. David Hockney visited the Central Academy of Fine Arts
in Beijing where a young teacher asked him, “‘What national exhibitions are there in England?’ Puzzled, David responded with an
‘Er . . . ’ Then he hazarded: ‘Well, the best is the Royal Academy.
It’s mostly for amateurs.’ Another ‘er. . . . ’”1
A thousand years ago in China, the pioneers of literati art set
themselves up against the court practitioners, using their amateur
art as a media for critiquing government policies. Chinese artists
in the 1980s were heirs to this same pattern: they either belonged
to the camp under the sway of offi cial socialist ideology and reputable national exhibitions, or they belonged to an independent,
nongovernmental supported avant-gardism. It was not that Chinese artists did not try to revitalize the literati tradition, but the
mid-1980s New Literati Art Movement deteriorated into a playfulness of ink and brush that was characteristic of literati art in
late imperial times. The urge to fi nd a powerful language to strike
out against the offi cial control of art was indeed the initial motivation of Chinese artists who looked to Western contemporary
visual language as a resource. Moral support for these Chinese
artists came from foreign diplomats, visiting scholars, and foreign
students residing in China.
In the early 1990s, the contemporary Chinese art movement
was forced to go underground and Chinese artists found the West
as a new audience for their works. An increasingly active dialogue
has emerged between the local (Chinese) and the global (EuroAmerican) worlds, raising the visibility of China’s new art to
unprecedented heights. Andrew Solomon’s infl uential essay, “Their
Irony, Humor (and Art) Can Save China,” published in the New
York Times Sunday Magazine (1993), made an indelible impact on
the view of contemporary Chinese art among a growing Western
However, Homi Bhabha has off ered an ominous warning about these Chinese artists: “Despite the claims to [what is]
a spurious rhetoric of ‘internationalism,’ the relationship between
Chinese artists and the postmodern art world is that they live in
‘the nations of others.’”3
In this volume, we hoped to investigate this issue of “otherness” from diff erent angles:
1. Are these Chinese artists ideologically “imprisoned” as they
depend on the Western social system and discourse for their
life and art?
<i>Xu Bing and Contemporary Chinese Art : Cultural and Philosophical Reflections</i>, edited by Hsingyuan Tsao, and Roger T. Ames, State
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A Dilemma in Contemporary Chinese Art xv
2. Does the use of Chinese-segmented visual and linguistic
marks and traditions “add to” the Anglo-American postmodern discourse “without adding up”4
to anything itself?
To put it simply, is Chinese contemporary art rooted in the tradition of Chinese culture, or is it yet another excellent example of
cultural self-colonization?
In order to investigate these questions, the contributors to this
volume have attempted to relate Chinese artistic expression to the
structure and function of the Chinese language and to the unadvertised assumptions of Chinese natural cosmology. Many of the
world’s cosmologies associate language and cosmic creativity, from
“in the beginning was the word” to aboriginal Australians who
believe that order is created and sustained through song. A major
theme in the Yijing (Book of Changes 易经), a text that grounds
the evolution of Confucian and Daoist cosmology, is the fertile
and productive relationship between image, language, and meaning. Can we go beyond the more obvious political and social commentaries on contemporary Chinese art to fi nd resonances between
some of these artistic ideas and the indigenous sources of Chinese
cultural self-understanding? This volume is dedicated to an exploration of how Xu Bing and other artists have navigated between two
diff erent cultural sites and established a “third” place from which
they are able to appropriate novel Western ideas to address centuries
old Chinese cultural issues within a Chinese cultural discourse.
There are at least four reasons for selecting the art of Xu Bing
as a central focus for this volume. First and foremost is the nature
of Xu Bing’s work. A Book from the Sky, for example, incorporates
over four thousand characters that were fabricated using the theoretical principles of word making in the written Chinese language.
They look like Chinese characters but none of the characters could
be pronounced in Chinese nor did they possess shared, designated
meanings. They are unintelligible to an otherwise literate audience.
These characters can be “meaningful” only when “read” outside of
normal linguistic practices. As Bei Dao, a contemporary Chinese
poet, has said of Xu Bing’s characters: “You are nothing but a pictograph that has lost its sound.”
The second reason for using Xu Bing’s work as an axis of discussion is that both editors, Tsao and Ames, are enamored with Xu
Bing’s A Book from the Sky, believing that it has much to off er as a heuristic for refl ecting upon the role of language and meaning-making
<i>Xu Bing and Contemporary Chinese Art : Cultural and Philosophical Reflections</i>, edited by Hsingyuan Tsao, and Roger T. Ames, State
University of New York Press, 2011. ProQuest Ebook Central,
Created from newschool on 2019-09-27 07:53:09. Copyright © 2011. State University of New York Press. All rights reserved.
xvi hsingyuan tsao & roger t. ames
figure i.1. A Book from the Sky (Tian shu 天书), Xu Bing, 1987–1991.
Above: detail of pages from two of the set of four books. Below: Installation
view. (Courtesy of the artist.)
<i>Xu Bing and Contemporary Chinese Art : Cultural and Philosophical Reflections</i>, edited by Hsingyuan Tsao, and Roger T. Ames, State
University of New York Press, 2011. ProQuest Ebook Central,
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A Dilemma in Contemporary Chinese Art xvii
in the traditional Chinese cultural discourse. It provides an occasion
for bringing into focus commonalities that are broadly shared by
philosophy, history, art, and culture, while allowing each of these
disciplines to speak from their own unique perspective.
The third, but equally important reason for engaging Xu Bing’s
oeuvre is that this work allows critics to look at Chinese culture in
a panoramic way. Xu Bing’s “text” carries the conversation back
into the wealth of ancient Chinese culture and forward into China’s
recent launch into the international contemporary art world. A Book
from the Sky is a spectacle that requires us to locate contemporary
Chinese art within its cultural context, allowing that this work was
admittedly crafted under the invisible infl uence of Western postmodern culture at a time when the Chinese authorities—political
and academic—exerted a concentrated eff ort to prohibit its people
from studying the issues of postmodernity.
Finally, both editors are persuaded that there is real aesthetic
profundity in Xu Bing’s A Book from the Sky as a work of art itself.
It is a piece that provokes animated theorizing among its readers
as in the substance of this volume. At the same time, it resists any
reduction to specifi c abstract explanations. Like all great art, it is
bottomless, allowing us in our appreciation only to “get on with it”
as opposed to “getting it right.”
There are seven chapters in this collection. Tsao Hsingyuan
begins the volume by off ering the general background needed to
contextualize the contemporary art scene in China, illustrating
how artists have sought to please diff erent audiences under diff erent
circumstances. In “Reading and Misreading: Double Entendre in
Locally Oriented Logos,” Tsao’s primary focus is the audiences for
contemporary Chinese art. Tsao suggests that the term “avant-garde”
was used to describe contemporary art in China simply because in
the 1970s it served the Chinese artist as a way of deploying Western
modern art language to challenge the grip of political and authoritarian control through a kind of cultural insurgency. However, after
1989, the audience for contemporary Chinese art shifted from a
strained, sometimes shrill polemic with the Chinese authorities to
a dialogue with an increasingly appreciative Western audience that
had emerged through the international commoditization of their
work. Still, Tsao argues, while some Chinese artists have self-consciously divorced themselves from traditional Chinese culture, the
diluted relationship between geographical site and cultural experience brought on by globalization has allowed other Chinese artists,
<i>Xu Bing and Contemporary Chinese Art : Cultural and Philosophical Reflections</i>, edited by Hsingyuan Tsao, and Roger T. Ames, State
University of New York Press, 2011. ProQuest Ebook Central,
Created from newschool on 2019-09-27 07:53:09. Copyright © 2011. State University of New York Press. All rights reserved.
xviii hsingyuan tsao & roger t. ames
such as Xu Bing, to achieve a kind of “interculturality” by presenting a strong Chinese cultural identity in an international forum.
Such “interculturality” might sound liberating, but Tsao
Hsingyuan, invoking the specter of the global capitalist art world,
rejects any naïve assumption that the cultural specifi city and “localness” of Chinese artists such as Xu Bing represent some kind of
Chinese triumph in which these artists have a transformative aff ect
on world art. Tsao cautions that, on the contrary, these artists are
being absorbed wholesale into the discourses and corporate values
of a global postindustrialist capitalism that is not of their own making, and that in many ways contradicts the substance of their own
traditional Chinese culture.
Roger T. Ames, in “Reading Xu Bing’s A Book from the Sky:
A Case Study in the Making of Meaning,” appeals to the canons
of the Chinese philosophical tradition to bring detail and textual
specifi city to some of the more general claims about a persistent
Chinese cultural identity being made by Tsao Hsingyuan. He associates the characters in Xu Bing’s A Book from the Sky with the ”fi sh
traps” and “rabbit snares” metaphors for catching meaning that we
fi nd in Daoist writings. He argues that language is self-referencing,
and that the meaning of a word is a function of its use within a
language system. The act of ordering the world through language
does not begin from assumptions about a “literal” language that,
in mapping onto a given “reality,” enables us to reference things
in the world correctly. Rather, the use of language requires that
we constantly adjust and reinvest words and their meanings with
the practical intention of increasing communal harmony and signifi cance. This is perhaps what Guillaume Apollinaire (1880–1918)
means in claiming that art should be more real than reality. Once
the situated meaning has been “trapped” and expressed in these
particular words, the words are then “emptied” and stand available
for further deployment in capturing and conveying new meanings.
To the extent that A Book from the Sky is identifi able as “language” and yet stands empty, we are confronted with linguistic
“ruins” that threaten our faith in the persistence of a shared dogma,
a shared common sense. On the one hand, this is a disturbing,
even startling, experience that undermines our feelings of communal solidarity and our assumed competence within our community, underscoring perhaps a sense of the ultimate precariousness of
the human experience. However, as the reassurance of shared linguistic “objectivity” recedes from sight, we are renewed as unique,
<i>Xu Bing and Contemporary Chinese Art : Cultural and Philosophical Reflections</i>, edited by Hsingyuan Tsao, and Roger T. Ames, State
University of New York Press, 2011. ProQuest Ebook Central,
Created from newschool on 2019-09-27 07:53:09. Copyright © 2011. State University of New York Press. All rights reserved.
A Dilemma in Contemporary Chinese Art xix
historical, contingent, and provisional beings that struggle with
imagination to quite literally make sense of the nonsense. Xu Bing’s
work forces us to appreciate our own role in the making of meaning, renewing our confi dence in our own subjectivity. Indeed, Xu
Bing in off ering us his empty “traps” is challenging us to capture a
new world impressed with new meanings of our own making.
Kuan-Hung Chen shares a common starting point with Ames
in his “Seriousness, Playfulness, and a Religious Reading of A Book
from the Sky,” but focuses on the religious implications of Xu Bing’s
work. Chen argues that A Book from the Sky has a profoundly religious import, and with its movement between seriousness and playfulness, allows us to distinguish Xu Bing’s inclusive religiousness
from the more familiar exclusive paradigm of religion. As a basis for
framing his discussion of inclusive and exclusive religiousness, Chen
uses John Dewey’s distinction between a liberating, unique expression of religiousness and the often oppressive, suff ocating strictures
and dogma of institutionalized religion.
Exclusive religiousness is based upon a kind of transcendentalism that utterly separates the object of reverence from the supplicant, operating within a clear dualistic paradigm. The problem
with applying this model to a reading of Xu Bing’s work is that a
Western audience familiar with exclusive religiousness but having
little or no background in Chinese culture will conclude that there
is little religious import in Xu Bing’s work. Of course, this response
is prompted by the fact that the transcendental ground of exclusive
religiousness has little relevance for traditional Chinese philosophical and religious sensibilities. Further, the “One behind the many”
model of religiousness with all of its accoutrements of a ‘Reality’
behind appearance and its single, universal ‘Truth’ precludes the
playfulness that is so evident in A Book from the Sky.
Chen appeals to a mantra often invoked by scholars of premodern China to defi ne religiousness—“the continuity between
humanity and the divine (tianren heyi 天人合一)”—as a basis for
arguing for the inclusive nature of the Chinese religious experience. The qi æ°” cosmology, which serves as the interpretive context of traditional Chinese culture, begins from the wholeness of
experience and the unbroken continuity among the unique things
and events that constitute it. In the absence of some transcendental ground, religious meaning is made through productive correlations that allow for both persistence and novelty, for continuity and
uniqueness, for reverence and a creative playfulness. Indeed, it is
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xx hsingyuan tsao & roger t. ames
only when Xu Bing’s A Book from the Sky is understood in terms of
this inclusive religious sensibility that the audience is able to appreciate both the sophisticated profundity of the work and its openness
to creative play.
In his chapter, “Making Natural Languages in Contemporary
Chinese Art,” Richard Vinograd fi rst defi nes his terms. “Natural
languages” is a broad category of textual rather than spoken language ranging from Chinese characters and trigrams to tattoos
and talismans that are perceived as having their source in nature
rather than in culture. “Chinese” references the early training and
culturally based allusions of these contemporary artists. By using
the term “making,” Vinograd captures the paradoxes inherent in
the contribution of these Chinese artists to the contemporary art
world: the seeming artifi ciality, meaninglessness, and obscurity of
the putatively “natural” languages. The specifi c work of Xu Bing is
not an altogether unusual phenomenon in the language-based art
that has been an important part of public consciousness during and
following the Maoist era.
In several of his projects, such as Square Word Calligraphy and
A Book from the Sky, Xu Bing plays on a tension between the anticipated familiarity expected from a natural language and the frustration or anxiety one feels in encountering its defamiliarized and
estranged form. In spite of the magnitude of these installations and
the obvious labor that has gone into their construction—Xu Bing’s
and other artists as well—the role of the spectator is paramount.
Whatever meaning or lack of it that such projects are able to communicate, it is not a message from artist to viewer but an encounter between the embedded graphs and the viewer’s response, even
when the response is one of utter bemusement.
Vinograd rehearses a range of Xu Bing’s artworks in which each
mode of natural language represents an alternative to our expectations around conventional language. There is a diff erence between
“seeing” and “reading” that places an enormous burden of recognition on the viewer that is required for decoding and decipherment.
In all of this, there seems to be a mistrust of conventional language
and pessimism about the possibility of meaningful communication.
The natural languages are repeatedly referenced in ways that defer
the usual expectations of legibility and meaning. Perhaps there is
some compensation in the aesthetic deployment of these natural
languages, which require further probing to reveal deep and abiding cultural identities.
<i>Xu Bing and Contemporary Chinese Art : Cultural and Philosophical Reflections</i>, edited by Hsingyuan Tsao, and Roger T. Ames, State
University of New York Press, 2011. ProQuest Ebook Central,
Created from newschool on 2019-09-27 07:53:09. Copyright © 2011. State University of New York Press. All rights reserved.
A Dilemma in Contemporary Chinese Art xxi
In her chapter “The Living Word: Xu Bing and the Art of Chan
Wordplay,” April Liu begins with Xu Bing’s professed interest in
Chan Buddhism. The strategies for indirect communication that
we fi nd in Xu Bing’s art fi nd immediate resonance with images
of the Chan tradition as a possible cultural resource—associations
with the “gongan 公案” or nonsensical dialogue form, the frequent
use of wordplay and paradox, the use of repetitive, menial tasks as
a meditative heuristic, and so on. But Liu poses the challenging
question: whose Chan anyway? That is, does Xu Bing appeal to
traditional understandings of a decidedly Chinese variation on an
antique Indian philosophy and religion, or is he playing to a thin,
popular, “Westernized” version of the same?
Liu identifi es three moments in Xu Bing’s entry into the international art world that we might associate with Chan Buddhism.
First, in A Book from the Sky, without explicit reference to Chan,
Xu Bing attempts to communicate by subverting the expectations
of existing cultural and linguistic frameworks through the use of
empty signifi ers. Second, in his recent prize-winning installation
Where Does the Dust Itself Collect? Xu Bing includes a direct reference to a familiar Chan poem where its original meaning is itself
subverted by complicity in the institutionalized agenda, nationalist
politics, and preexisting meanings of the international art world for
whom it is displayed. And third, Xu Bing has been associated with
popular, commodifi ed representations of Chan sensibilities and a
“depthless” romantic imaginaire. Within this context, Xu Bing has
been challenged to open up an “alternative space” that acknowledges the Chan infi ltration of popular Western culture and problematizes simple East–West, traditional–modern binaries. Still, for
Liu, the most important question is not the possibility of success
or failure in Xu Bing’s subverting a hegemonic Western ideology,
but whether or not his Chan-inspired commitment to engaging the
viewer can open up alternative ways of communication through
visual art.
Kazuko Kameda-Madar, in her chapter “A Study of Shen Wai
Shen (Body Outside Body) by Xu Bing,” explores a work by Xu
Bing that literally means “the body outside the body.” This installation recontextualizes the way in which Chinese calligraphy has
been historically used to transcribe the Japanese and Korean spoken languages; it refl ects on how these East Asian languages have
been aff ected by the emergence of recent digital and computer
<i>Xu Bing and Contemporary Chinese Art : Cultural and Philosophical Reflections</i>, edited by Hsingyuan Tsao, and Roger T. Ames, State
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xxii hsingyuan tsao & roger t. ames
Shen Wai Shen was presented in the exhibition at Ginza Graphic
Gallery in December 2000 to explore the possibilities of the electronic publishing and book industry among East Asian countries,
particularly those regions that share a common heritage of Chinesebased scripts. East Asia is currently struggling to get past persistent
historical tensions to achieve some degree of political unifi cation in
the face of the growing hegemony of the Euro-American world. To
this end, the organizers of the exhibition felt some urgency to seek
a solution within the shared artistic, linguistic, and cultural expressions of East Asian countries. They thus invited representative artists from China, Korea, and Japan to produce artworks involving a
specifi c passage from the classical Chinese story Journey to the West,
an infl uential text in the heritage of all three cultures.
In order to investigate the political and cultural instability and
the linguistic ambiguity of this region from an East Asian perspective, Kameda-Madar observes Shen Wai Shen through the lens
of Confucian and Buddhist cosmologies, as well as from the vantage point of eighteenth-century Tokugawa-era philosophies. Her
approach thus stands in stark contrast to the more common application of Western theories and ideologies that are used to study Xu
Bing’s work.
In this installation, Xu Bing uses the “body” of “Monkey”
(Sun Wukong) as a metaphor for the Chinese writing system. Sun
Wukong is known for pulling out hairs from his body, blowing them
into the air, and transforming each hair into a duplicate of himself to
help fi ght off various foes. This act of pulling out hairs and replicating himself suggests the long history of spreading the Chinese writing system from China proper to the outlying Sinitic cultures. Thus,
these “bodies” are understood as the distinct new writing systems
that emerged in East Asia, with each one possessing some unique
asset needed to help Monkey battle against the demons.
Shen Wai Shen experiments with the degree to which the three
languages that rely on the Chinese-based scripts can communicate.
In the installation, as viewers randomly remove sheets of paper on
which the story is written, an evolving block of a multilingual text
appears. Although the text at any given time frustrates an understanding of the details of the story, the overall content of the passage is comprehensible. Thus, taken together, these languages are
paradoxically at once intelligible and unintelligible. For KamedaMadar, it is her hope that a sociopolitical reconciliation among
these East Asian countries based on their overlapping traditions
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A Dilemma in Contemporary Chinese Art xxiii
will establish a new allied power that might achieve a balanced and
complementary relationship with the Euro-American powers.
Jerome Silbergeld broadens the scope of the volume by locating Xu Bing among a cadre of contemporary Chinese artists. In
his chapter, “The Space Between: Cross-Cultural Encounters in
Contemporary Chinese Art,” Silbergeld discusses the works of
four artists who work in diff erent media: Xu Bing, Lin Zhi, Zhang
Hong tu, and Jiang Wen.
Silbergeld rehearses the various diff erent kinds of “inbetweeness” found within word and image, content and context, China
and non-China, and so on. As one among several artists, certain
works by Xu Bing are addressed: A Book from the Sky, Square Word
Calligraphy, Reading Landscape, and Monkeys Grasp for the Moon.
Silbergeld proceeds from the observation that “the space between
cultures, native and adopted, is frequently dark, uncomfortable, or
unexplored.” Appealing to Homi Bhabha’s theory of liminal space
and Rey Chow’s rejection of “absolute diff erence,” Silbergeld pursues a careful reading of representative artworks of these four artists
to conclude that all “have developed signature styles based on borrowings from China and the West, transforming these into something neither East nor West, not just Chinese, not not Chinese.
Their art creates and operates in a world of its own.”
But what does this all add up to? Silbergeld is not persuaded
that these artists are necessarily going to have some transformative impact on their adopted worlds. Indeed, he leaves us with the
open question: “Art is shaped by society—that can be measured
in the art itself. But how does one measure whether art, in turn,
changes society?”
This volume tries to provide a theoretical space to refl ect on the
meaning of contemporary Chinese art. Even though scholars such
as Edward Said, Homi Bhabha, and Rey Chow have complicated
perceptions of the relationship between the West and the Other,
they have not yet changed the binary intellectual perspectives that
constantly haunt the eff orts at a productive conversation between
the East and the West. Proceeding from Heidegger’s claim that
language is our cultural being, perhaps the key point of Xu Bing’s A
Book from the Sky is to establish a space where the putative language,
word, or script cannot be claimed by any specifi c culture, a space
where the East and the West cannot be easily separated.
In his famous dialogue with a Japanese philosopher, Heidegger
remarks, “Some time ago I called language, clumsily enough, the
<i>Xu Bing and Contemporary Chinese Art : Cultural and Philosophical Reflections</i>, edited by Hsingyuan Tsao, and Roger T. Ames, State
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xxiv hsingyuan tsao & roger t. ames
house of Being. If man by virtue of his language dwells within the
claim and call of Being, then we Europeans presumably dwell in an
entirely diff erent house than East Asian men.”5
Allowing, as with
Heidegger, that in our own times these cultural diff erences persist,
we can also claim that contemporary Chinese art is indeed “Chinese” art, and that it serves the dual function of championing the
quest for artistic freedom precious to all cultures, and at the same
time asking for an understanding and tolerance of the values that it
represents from a sometimes reluctant West.
1. Stephen Spender, China Diary (New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc.,
1982), 31.
2. The Sunday Magazine of the New York Times 19 (1993), 42–72.
3. Homi Bhabha, The Location of Culture (New York: Routledge, 2002),
4. Ibid.
5. Martin Heidegger, On the Way to Language (New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 1982), 1.
<i>Xu Bing and Contemporary Chinese Art : Cultural and Philosophical Reflections</i>, edited by Hsingyuan Tsao, and Roger T. Ames, State
University of New York Press, 2011. ProQuest Ebook Central,
Created from newschool on 2019-09-27 07:53:09. Copyright © 2011. State University of New York Press. All rights reserved.

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Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

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Basic features
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  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
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  • Overnight delivery
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  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

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Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

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Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

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Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

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