Articles, Websites, and Videos:
This chapter focuses on special writing within agencies such as transfer/discharge, letters for lobbying advocacy, and client reports to other agencies.
Â·Â Agency-based writing – LettersÂ . (2018). In Weisman, D., & Zornado, J. L.,Â Â Professional writing for social work practice, Second EditionÂ (Vol. Second edition). New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
Â· Chapter Ten addresses Social Work Case Management Standard 6, Service Planning, Implementation, and Monitoring, and Standard 8, Interdisciplinary Collaboration.
Â· Chapter Ten addresses Human Serviceâ€“Certified Board Practitioner Competency 4, Case Management, which is focused on service coordination.
My company does something a little bit different than case management. Itâ€™s case management and then itâ€™s more. We are actually called resource coordinators. My agency is the premier provider for therapeutic foster care in the region â€¦ The reason our agency was started was because a man who was working for human services figured out that a lot of these kids who have pretty serious needs arenâ€™t getting their needs met by the department and need specialized, intensive treatment and support.
â€”Jessica Brothers-Brock, 2012, text from unpublished interview. Used with permissionÂ .
This chapter explores service coordination as a critical component of modern case management. We examine the coordination and monitoring of services as well as the skills that will help you perform these roles. After reading the chapter, you should be able to accomplish the following objectives.
Â· Describe a systematic selection process for resources.
Â· Discuss why networking is important.
Â· Identity strategies for creating a network of professional colleagues.
Â· Make an appropriate referral.
Â· Identify the activities involved in monitoring.
Â· List ways to achieve more effective communication with other professionals.
Â· Use technology and social media in coordinating services
Â· Describe the purpose of a treatment team.
Â· Define departmental teams, interdisciplinary teams, and teams with family and friends.
Â· List the benefits of working in and with teams.
Â· Describe ways to address the challenges that teamwork brings.
Â· Describe the place of ending services in the case management process.
Â· List the steps used to end client services.
Â· Identity why clients may need to be transferred from one professional to another.
Â· Describe the transfer process.
Â· Discuss the purpose of a discharge plan.
One of the most important roles in case management is service coordination. Rarely can a human services agency or a single professional provide all the services a client needs. Because in-house services are limited by the agencyâ€™s mission, resources, and eligibility criteriaâ€”as well as by its employeesâ€™ roles, functions, and expertiseâ€”arrangements must be made to match client needs with outside resources. Case managers must know which community resources are available and how to access them. Case managers also work in partnerships with others as they coordinate services; at times, they work in teams for the benefit of effective and positive client outcomes. And, at the end of the process, for multiple reasons, case managers end the provision of services to their clients.
In the following quotes, case managers talk about the importance of goals and their role in coordinating services.
In my job you have to know about the resources in your community. You can really help your clients get to the right place.
â€”Director and case manager, intensive case management services, Los Angeles, California
When I worked as a case manager in the downtown hospital, I needed networks in the hospital, in the medical community, and in the human services community. In fact, since I was doing discharge planning, this knowledge was a critical part of my job. I could not meet all of my clientsâ€™ needs. And the range of needs was so great, from detox services, to Social Security and government services, to food stamps and housing. I also had to help my families deal with the bureaucracy.
â€”Case manager, urban hospital, Atlanta, Georgia
It is incredible how important community is to other service providers. In my job I am a broker, and I have to be able to meet people, establish relationships with them, and work well with them. Things have changed since I started my work. Much of my work as a broker is online. And sometimes I use FaceTime or Skype. This inclusion of Internet work requires special attention to professional behavior and to recordkeeping.
â€”Care coordinator, health system, Pima County, Arizona
The preceding quotations reflect the knowledge and skills that a case manager uses to meet client needs. In the first quote, the case manager works with individuals with serious mental illness. To provide effective care, she expresses a desire to refer clients to the best services. Later in the interview, she talked about an incident when the referral did not go well. This interfered with the clientâ€™s care. In the second quote, the case manager was a discharge planner for an urban hospital. The needs of her client (patients) were so varied that she needed knowledge of medical systems and a wide range of social service systems. She shared that it took a long time for her to gain the knowledge of how to refer within these complicated systems. This knowledge served her well from the beginning of the case management process through to her discharge planning. In the third quote, the case manager emphasizes her need to establish networks. These relationships are established over a period of time; the case manager needs both the knowledge of the services available and the ability to establish rapport with fellow professionals. Each of these professionals also needs to know how to negotiate the service delivery system to gain access to thoseÂ resources for the client. Having networks in place requires knowledge of both the agency and the name of a contact. Perhaps the one indispensable skill in using resources is communication! According to the third case manager who works as care coordinator for health-related services, there is more work conducted over the Internet. This requires a different type of communication and recordkeeping.
Todayâ€™s service delivery environment imposes new roles and responsibilities on the case manager. In the past, many services were provided directly by the case manager, but service delivery has become more specialized. Professionals must be careful not to provide direct services in areas in which they are not trained or lack the necessary resources. Case management has thus come to mean providing selected services, coordinating the delivery of other services, and monitoring the delivery of all services. In addition, it includes ending client services. This shift in job definition calls for skills inÂ Â networkingÂ ,Â Â collaborationÂ , andÂ Â teamworkÂ . We discuss networking as we talk about coordinating services and making referrals. There is a section that describes working with other professionals, the importance of teamwork and collaboration, and addressing challenges that arise.
If a client needs services that an agency does not provide, then it is the case managerâ€™s responsibility to locate such resources in the community, arrange for the client to make use of them, and support the client in using them. These are the three basic activities in coordinating delivery of human services. In coordinating services, the case manager engages in linking, monitoring, and advocating while adding to on the assessment and planning that have taken place in earlier phases of case management. The case manager continues to build on client strengths or emphasize client empowerment within the context of the clientâ€™s cultural background and basic values.
Coordinating the services of multiple professionals has several advantages for both the case manager and the client. First, the client gains access to an array of services; no single agency can meet all the needs of all clients. The case manager can concentrate on providing only those services for which he or she is trained while linking the client to the services of other professionals who have different areas of expertise and have the necessary resources. Second, the case managerâ€™s knowledge and skills help the client gain access to needed services. Often, services are available in the community, but clients are unlikely to know what they are or how to get them. The success of service delivery may depend on advocacy by the case manager. Also, service coordination promotes effective and efficient service delivery. In times of shrinking resources, demands for cutbacks in social services, and stringent accountability, service provision must be cost-effective and time-limited. In addition, customer satisfaction is important. Clients have the right to receive the services they need without getting the runaround or encountering frustrating confusion among providers.
Service coordination becomes key once the client and the case manager have agreed on a plan of services and have determined what services will be provided by someone other than the case manager. As case managers begin the coordination of services, they consider several aspects of this work such as reviewing family support, assessing client strengths, insuring quality documentation, reviewing professional contracts, encouraging client participation, and developing plans to monitor services. We discuss each of these.
For services that will be provided by others, a beginning step is to review previous contacts with service providers. This review includes four important questions:
Â· What services do they provide?
Â· Is this client eligible for those services?
Â· Can the services be provided in-house?
Â· What about the individualâ€™s own resources and those of the family?
A second step is to consider the type of family support available. In fact, family support may be critical for the success of the plan. Third, the clientâ€™s own problem-solving skills and strengths may be helpful. This means that the case manager does not ignore the resources of the client, the family, or significant others.
The next step is referralâ€”the connection of a client with a service provider. Equally important is developing a plan to monitor service delivery over time and following-up to make sure the services have been delivered appropriately. These steps may vary somewhat, depending on whether the services are delivered in-house or by an outside agency, but the flow of the process is likely to be the same. Before examining these steps in detail, let us review the documentation and client participation aspects of service coordination.
Documentation is critical in this part of case management. Staff notes must accurately record meetings, services, contacts, barriers, and other important information. During this phase, reports from other professionals are added to the case file. Any progress that occurs in the arrangement of services must be recorded by the case manager.
Client participation is important throughout the service coordination process. This entails more than just keeping the client informed; his or her involvement should be active and ongoing. First, the client participates in determining the problem that calls for assistance. Second, the values, preferences, strengths, cultural perspectives, and interests of the client play a key role in selecting community resources; of course, client participation is critical in following-up on a referral. Clients also have the right to privacy and confidentiality. Without the clientâ€™s written consent, the case manager must not involve others in the case or give an outsider any information about it.
Maintaining relationships is a key factor in service coordination. And remembering that meeting client needs is of primary importance is an excellent guideline. Relationships may be between individuals or agencies. Case managers often represent their agencies or organizations during the service coordination effort. At times, relationships among agencies sometimes hinge on the working relationships between individual direct service providers. Often relationships begin with a case managerâ€™s networking with other professionals and continue as case managers consult, refer, or work together with others on teams. InÂ Â NetworkingÂ we describe networking, what it is, and its benefits. In this chapter we also present strategies to help case managers develop strong networking systems. Later in this chapter, we describe the case managerâ€™s involvement in teamwork. In addition, we describe the issues and challenges that may occur as case managers work in teams and suggest ways to address these.
Before we continue our discussion of service coordination and discuss the importance of networking, we want you to hear Sharonâ€™s perspective of service coordination.
Alma and I talked about who should write this entry. At first she thought that it was her story to write, since she was the case manager involved in the coordination of my care. But, in the end, I convinced her that I had a lot to say about the coordination of care. I just wanted everyone reading this book to know that the client is also affected by all of this interaction with lots of professionals. I have drawn a picture for you of my experiences with the rehabilitation agency. You can see this picture inÂ Â Figure 10.1. Look at the picture, and then I can explain it to you.
FigureÂ 10.1A Clientâ€™s (Sharon Bello) View of the Service Coordination Process
In my agency, my primary contact with the entire service coordination process is Alma. I am not complaining, but you can tell from my description of the case management process that I donâ€™t really know much about how the other professionals work together. So, here is what I think happens:
Â· I meet with my case manager.
Â· I have appointments with other professionals who make assessments.
Â·Â These professionals provide their reports to one of my case managers (Tom, Susan, Luis, or Alma).
Â· My case manager at the time describes the results of the assessment to me.
Â· Sometimes we decide I need another assessment. This just recently happened at my school and I was able to get some financial assistance.
Â· We make a new plan based on the assessments.
Â· My case managerâ€™s supervisor approves the plan. She could have asked us to revise it.
Â· We carry out the plan and I communicate with my case manager periodically. I also call my case manager if I have an emergency.
The process was a little different when I applied for services. At that time a team evaluated my application and accepted me as a client. And I donâ€™t really know much about what happens with Alma when she works with other professionals. That is not part of our discussion when we meet.
One place that I know of where this process is different is at the school where my children attend. I mean where the boys did attend and where the girls attend now. For Sean, especially, we had team meetings to talk about his work and the services he was receiving. We met at least three times during the year. I was invited and I always attended. There were several people who came to the meetings like the school counselor, the social worker, a psychologist, and sometimes the principal attended the meeting. The resource teacher was in charge of the meeting. When Sean was in middle school he came to the meetings, too. In that meeting, I listened mostly to all of the other people talk about my Sean. It was not always a positive experience for me and not for Sean either. Compared to the school experience, meeting with Alma is much more supportive. So, those are my experiences.
Client participation is an important part of service coordination. Sharon Bello shares with us her perspective of service coordination. As an individual, a small group, or a class, discuss what insights you gained from reading her entry. How might her experiences help you coordinate services for your clients?
Share the results of your discussion with your classmates.
Once the process of coordinating services begins, the case manager makes resource selections, refers the client to other professionals, and monitors services. One important aspect of resource selection, locating services for clients, making referrals, and monitoring services is networking.
Networking, an important professional responsibility and skill, is â€œthe exchange of information or services among individuals, groups, or institutions; specifically, the cultivation of productive relationships for employment or businessâ€ (Merriam-Webster, n. d.). The purpose of networking, as it relates to case management, supports the complex tasks required to serve clients with multiple needs across a wide range of disciplines. Networking also helps case managers perform several of the roles introduced inÂ Â Chapter Three, such as advocate, broker, coordinator, consultant, and problem solver. In this chapter, we focus on three of these roles: advocate, broker, and coordinator. InÂ Â Chapter Twelve, we include the importance of networking as it relates to the role of consultant. Benefits to establishing a strong professional network include providing more effective services to the client, supporting the professional development of the case manager, and building linkages among agencies. Because case managersâ€™ work often extends beyond their own professional expertise (e.g., social work, counseling, human services), networking activities often include settings in which case managers are less familiar. Alma Grady shares a few of her networking experiences.
To be honest with you, at first networking was very difficult for me. While I was in school, my professors talked about the importance of networking. And during my internship, my site supervisor modeled strong networking skills. I watched her with wonder. You see, I am a shy person, and it looked to me like I would never be able to build networks similar to his. I assumed this would be a weakness that I could never correct.
Once I started my first job, I realized that I could not help my clients without beginning to know what was going on in the community and what services were available. During my first year, every time I needed help, I would ask my supervisor about community services and good contact persons. Every time I picked up the phone or sent an email, I did so with the introduction, â€œHi, my name is Alma Grady and I am a counselor/case manager working with rehabilitation clients. I have a client who I believe could use your services.â€ I kept records of my contacts in my clientsâ€™ files. But I also kept a log for myselfÂ about the contact, the topic, and the help that I received. Honestly, I thought that I was networking. And, in some ways, I was beginning to develop relationships with professionals in the community.
About 9 months after I started that first job, I was assigned a client who completely surprised me. I was not sure that I could help. But this individual was my client. It seemed that this client represented many of the things that I didnâ€™t know much about. The client was a burn patient, had a diagnosed substance use disorder, was a refugee, and, in his home country, was a victim of torture. I didnâ€™t have any experience with burn patients, little with refugees, and none with victims of torture. I was assigned this client because of my ability to develop rapport. To make things more difficult, the physicians, psychologists, and vocational evaluators I knew had little experience with the issues and challenges this client faced.
To better understand my client and to support the client in the case management process, I had to expand my network of professional help and support quickly. During this time, I found resources with agencies and organizations I knew little about. I did this in two ways. First, I looked up resources in the areaâ€”I used the web and I emailed several of my colleagues who work in other agencies and asked for their help. I also talked with several colleagues by phone. I made a list of questions that would help me learn about this specific medical focus, treatment and prognosis for burn patients, and the psychological implications of being a victim of torture.
Since I was in the learning mode, I asked my colleagues about how to introduce myself in a way that professions outside the social services would understand. I thought about how to speak without using our professional jargon, and how to match my clientâ€™s needs with another agencyâ€™s services. I encountered and then worked with a diverse set of services, including medical specialists, county and state parks and recreation, private foundations, a local mosque, and a support community of refugees. I also found a psychologist in a neighboring county who spoke the clientâ€™s native language and was herself a refugee. What I found, for the most part, was that other professionals were willing to help and were interested in helping my client.
Alma and her experiences reflect our belief that building networks is a skill that, with intentional practice, can help case managers build a web of support for their clients and for themselves. In business, networking is a key skill for a successful professional. We present some common practices that may help you develop your own professional network (seeÂ Â Figure 10.2) (Attard, 2016;Â Greene, 2016;Â Speisman, 2016). These include personal approaches and professional activities.
FigureÂ 10.2Building a Professional Network
A strong professional network does not develop quickly. Develop a strategy for getting to know other professionals and establishing relationships with them (e.g., plan to attend professional meetings, volunteer organizations).
Professional relationships are built on trust. Be honest about your education, job, and work responsibilities. Integrate your personal self with your professional self. There are multiple ways to â€œactâ€ professional that might include your sincerity, humor, honesty, and caring.
Within interactions with other professionals, follow through with what you promise.
Learn about professional organizations and activities in your local area whose goals and focus overlap with your interests and your job. Choose one or two to attend.
Use an early arrival, session breaks, and a late departure to meet individuals in attendance. Introduce yourself and engage in conversation about the work of the individuals you meet. Share some information about your own work. A common conversation starter might be about the event or meeting you are attending.
Part of meeting people is listening to what they have to say. Follow-up with open-ended questions about their work or share something that you see you have in common. Be curious!
Business cards are good to exchange during a first meeting. You leave with follow-up contact information and share yours.
Make sure after each encounter you record who you met, the content of the encounter, what (if any) promising follow-ups were made, and contact information. You may also note how you anticipate the individual or agency that the individual represents might help your client.
After the meeting, be sure to follow-up this with an email or phone call. If you promised to share information or ideas, be sure to follow-up promptly. Do not be discouraged if you do not get an immediate thank you. You are making the network connection. Be available in ways that meet the otherâ€™s needs (e.g., telephone, visit, email).
You may wish to gain additional information about the individualâ€™s work or the purpose of the agency that the individual works for. In either case, make time to read about the agency on the Internet or ask for more information. You may also wish to follow-up with a visit to the agency or a meeting with the individual you met earlier. At this meeting you might exchange information about clients and services and ways you can collaborate.
As an individual, within a small group, or as a class, talk about the networks that you have developed over time. A first step would be to review the networks you currently have. We list several types of networks below. Then, describe how you began the relationship, how the individual helps you or can help you in the future, and how you help the individual.
Â· Personal crisis or decision making
Â· Educational support
Â· Career support
Â· Work-related support
Discuss your responses with your classmates.
Once client needs and corresponding services have been identified, the client and case manager turn their attention toÂ Â resource selectionÂ â€”selecting individuals, programs, or agencies that can meet those needs. Paramount in this decision are the clientâ€™s values and preferences. The information and referral system that the case manager has developed (seeÂ Â Chapter Eight) is useful in this regard. Let us look at the case of Rube Manning and see how resource selection occurs.
Rube Manning is a 53-year-old White male who is on parole for aggravated rape. He had sexual relations with his 12-year-old niece; she later gave birth to his son. Both parties claim that the intercourse was consensual; the severity of the charge and conviction were due to the girlâ€™s age. The girl and the family seem to harbor no animosity toward Rube, and they even went so far as to write a letter on his behalf to the department of corrections. Rube was sentenced to 3 years in prison and is now eligible for parole. Angela Clemmons is the parole officer assigned to this case. She and Rube must develop a plan of services for him to pursue once he is released. Among the conditions of Rubeâ€™s parole are completing a mandatory sex offender program, supporting his son, and finding employment.
As we think about Rube Manningâ€™s case, we realize that there are no options for the mandatory sex offender program; only one program is available in his community. Angela, his case manager, senses that Rube is motivated to do everything in his power to comply with the conditions of parole. Although he does not talk much about his prison experience, he does say that he did not like it. Angela suspects that he was abused by other inmates. Sex offenders are usually on the lower rungs of the prisoner hierarchy unless they are very strong or charismatic; Rube is neither.
Finding employment and supporting the child are tied together. Checking her information and referral computer file, Angela advises Rube that there are three short-term training programs that can provide him with job skills. The first two are at the vocational school and would give him a certificate in either horticulture or industrial maintenance. The third one is on-the-job training in food services, with a modest salary until training is finished. Rubeâ€™s preference is horticulture, because he grew up on a farm and thinks he would feel more comfortable outdoors. He knows that industrial maintenance is a fancy term for janitorial work, and he is not interested. The location of the food services training is not on the bus line, and Rube has no transportation of his own, but this option offers a salary immediately. Angela notices that Rube sounds interestedâ€”even a little excitedâ€”about horticulture, so she checks her addresses and email file for the phone number of her contact (seeÂ Â Figure 10.3.)
Service Coordination Agency: Lincoln Vocational Technical School
Address: 30512 Townview Parkway
Contact Persons: Lynda Johnston, Admissions Robert Griffin, Student Services
Services: Short-term training programs in auto mechanics, cosmetology, horticulture, industrial maintenance, printing, and secretarial services.
Comments: Good student services and advising: Janet Evans 7/1/XX
In this case, resource selection is systematic, which has advantages for both the client and the case manager. The client and the case manager proceed objectively and deliberately, taking into account Rubeâ€™s values, beliefs, and desires. The rationale for the choice is articulated, and it reinforces his motivation to follow through with the referral. Rube Manning and his parole officer have chosen the horticulture program. It is on the bus line, it builds on Rubeâ€™s previous farming experience, and it is something he wants to pursue.
The selection process can also accommodate many alternatives and can tailor services to the clientâ€™s unique circumstances. The conditions of Rubeâ€™s parole include work, and he does want the independence, salary, and respect that come with employment. However, he is not willing to do just anything. Being a janitor does not appeal to him, and he does not want to work indoors. If the parole officer ignored his feelings at this point and had decided to steer him toward janitorial work, then Rube would probably not be motivated to do well. At the very worst, he would do nothing, and his parole would be revoked. In addition, the relationship between Angela Clemmons and Rube Manning would not develop as a partnership.
Being aware of the clientâ€™s preferences, strengths, and values is critical to the success of the selection step in service coordination. There must be a strong partnership between the participants. In our example that focuses on Rube Manning and his need for work, the decision to try the horticultural program takes into account Rubeâ€™s wishes, along with his need for training and employment.
As mentioned, no helper can provide all conceivable services. Therefore, arrangements must often be made to match client needs with resources. This is done by referring the client to another helping professional or agency to obtain the needed services. Referral is the process that puts the client in touch with needed resources. According to a case coordinator working with parents of students at an urban high school, â€œWe know that many of our families and students do not have money to provide the basics of food, housing, clothing, and medical services. We work hard here to help families and students find reliable sources within the community to provide help in these areas â€¦. [I]n this city there are emergency services and long-term services â€¦ often we refer to both of these types of services. Churches and local and state government services provide the most support for families. Sometimes we also need sheltersâ€”these are available in the community. During the 2008 economic downturn, the needs have more than tripled. And now, 7 years after that, the needs continue.â€
AÂ Â referralÂ Â connects the client with a resource within the agency structure or at another agency. In no way does referral imply failure on the case managerâ€™s part. Limitations on the services that a case manager can personally provide are imposed by policy, rules, regulations, and structure, and they reflect his or her own expertise and personal values.
The case manager assumes the role of broker at this point in service coordination. The broker knows both the resources available in the community and the policies and procedures of agencies. HeÂ or she acts as a go-between for those who seek services and those who provide them. As a broker, the case manager and the client may have access to information about an agencyâ€™s mission, goals, and services. Either independently or together, they can read about an agency and discuss that agencyâ€™s appropriateness for referral online. If the client has Internet access, then the case manager can encourage the client to explore the agency in more depth. In addition, both case manager and client may have access to client reviews of the agencyâ€™s work or client-based comments made on social media.
The case manager will be able to provide additional information about an agency and its services based on previous interaction with its staff or client experiences. Knowledge of how the agency works and help negotiating the bureaucracy remain the responsibilities of the case manager.
Consider the following case with regard to the referral process and the broker role.
Bethanyâ€™s first client on Tuesday is Anna, a young woman who has just discovered that she is pregnant. This pregnancy has caused a crisis in Annaâ€™s family. Her parents are first-generation immigrants from El Salvador, they are Catholic, and they are very opposed to both the pregnancy and abortion. Although the agency that employs Bethany specializes in career development services, Anna feels comfortable with Bethany and wishes to discuss her options for the pregnancy with her. However, this is a difficult subject for Bethany, because her sister had an abortion 3 years ago and still feels guilty and upset about her decision. In fact, the whole family is still having difficulty with it, since the sister is living at home. Bethany also knows that her training is in career development, and that she has never worked with anyone dealing with an unwanted pregnancy.
The encounter illustrates a situation that is appropriate for a referral. Bethany has some personal feelings that may impair her objectivity; she recognizes that she has no professional experience with this problem and that her agencyâ€™s purpose is career development. For these reasons, she decides it is best to make a referral to someone who can help Anna explore options related to the pregnancy. And she feels fortunate that there are other professionals available who can help Anna. Bethany will continue to support Annaâ€™s career development efforts. In the referral process, Bethanyâ€™s role is that of a broker. We consider this a transfer of the client from one professional to the next. This process is discussed later in this chapter.
Making a referral may seem like a fairly uncomplicated process, but it often results in failure. If a case manager believes that all that is necessary is being aware of client needs and making a phone call, then the referral is likely to be unsuccessful. In fact, it is common for clients referred to other community resources to resist making the initial contact. Clients may also fail to follow through after the first interview and drop out before service provision is complete.
A referral can fail for three reasons. The first is insensitivity to client needs on the part of the case manager. Identifying the problem but failing to grasp the clientâ€™s feelings about it contributes to an unsuccessful referral. The client may not be ready for referral at this point, feeling only that he or she is being shuffled among workers or agencies. Second, if the case manager lacks knowledge about resources, then the client may be referred to the wrong resource. This makes him or her feel lost in the system, think that it is all a waste of time, and believe (sometimes correctly) that the case manager is incompetent. A third reason for failure is misjudging the clientâ€™s capability to follow through with the referral. Suggesting to an involuntary client that she should call to make an appointment for a physical examination may not work, perhaps because she is new in town, is unsure of who to call, does not have a phone, or does not actually want the exam.
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You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!
Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.
You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.Read more
Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.Read more
Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.Read more
Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.Read more
By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.Read more